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John Holbo - Editor
Scott Eric Kaufman - Editor
Aaron Bady
Adam Roberts
Amardeep Singh
Andrew Seal
Bill Benzon
Daniel Green
Jonathan Goodwin
Joseph Kugelmass
Lawrence LaRiviere White
Marc Bousquet
Matt Greenfield
Miriam Burstein
Ray Davis
Rohan Maitzen
Sean McCann
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Miriam Jones

Past Valve Book Events

cover of the book Theory's Empire

Event Archive

cover of the book The Literary Wittgenstein

Event Archive

cover of the book Graphs, Maps, Trees

Event Archive

cover of the book How Novels Think

Event Archive

cover of the book The Trouble With Diversity

Event Archive

cover of the book What's Liberal About the Liberal Arts?

Event Archive

cover of the book The Novel of Purpose

Event Archive

The Valve - Closed For Renovation

Happy Trails to You

What’s an Encyclopedia These Days?

Encyclopedia Britannica to Shut Down Print Operations

Intimate Enemies: What’s Opera, Doc?

Alphonso Lingis talks of various things, cameras and photos among them

Feynmann, John von Neumann, and Mental Models

Support Michael Sporn’s Film about Edgar Allen Poe

Philosophy, Ontics or Toothpaste for the Mind

Nazi Rules for Regulating Funk ‘n Freedom

The Early History of Modern Computing: A Brief Chronology

Computing Encounters Being, an Addendum

On the Origin of Objects (towards a philosophy of computation)

Symposium on Graeber’s Debt

The Nightmare of Digital Film Preservation

Richard Petti on Occupy Wall Street: America HAS a Ruling Class

Bill Benzon on Whatwhatwhatwhatwhatwhatwhat?

Nick J. on The Valve - Closed For Renovation

Bill Benzon on Encyclopedia Britannica to Shut Down Print Operations

Norma on Encyclopedia Britannica to Shut Down Print Operations

Bill Benzon on What’s an Object, Metaphysically Speaking?

john balwit on What’s an Object, Metaphysically Speaking?

William Ray on That Shakespeare Thing

Bill Benzon on That Shakespeare Thing

William Ray on That Shakespeare Thing

JoseAngel on That Shakespeare Thing

Bill Benzon on Objects and Graeber's Debt

Bill Benzon on A Dirty Dozen Sneaking up on the Apocalypse

JoseAngel on A Dirty Dozen Sneaking up on the Apocalypse

JoseAngel on Objects and Graeber's Debt

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Sunday, October 16, 2011

Zombies Rising

Posted by Bill Benzon on 10/16/11 at 08:36 AM

Last Friday afternoon I was walking up Manhattan’s Fifth Avenue when I was passed by a man and a woman, in each in zombie dress and makeup. Since I’d heard there was a zombie makeup booth down at Liberty Plaza (that is, Zucotti Park as renamed by Occupy Wall Street), I wondered whether they were coming from there. A couple weeks earlier I’d been to an anti-nuke rally where a woman was applying zombie makeup. Economist John Quiggin’s written Zombie Economics: How Dead Ideas Still Walk among Us and political scientist Dan Drezner has written Theories of International Politics and Zombies.

What’s up with zombies?

Yes, there’s all the movies. But we’re not talking about movies now. We’re talking about non-fiction books by ‘serious’ authors and we’re talking about people going about at least part of their lives in zombie drag.

Why?

Don’t really know, but I’ll chalk it up to chaotic times.

Now, look at this chart from Google’s Ngram Viewer (you can view the full chart here):

zombie

The red line tracks the occurrence of the word “zombie” and the blue line tracks the occurrence of “voodoo”. As you know voodoo is the Louisiana member of a family of New World religions that combine elements of West African animism with elements of Christianity. As such it is closely related to Santaria (Cuba) and, of course, Voudou (Haiti). 

Zombies, as American popular culture has it, are one of the chief objects of Voodoo practice. Notice that the zombie (red) line lags behind the voodoo (blue) line until quite recently, when it crosses it just after the millennium. Zombie is now heading up while voodoo is heading down.

The lag between voodoo and zombie is easy to explain. Zombies—animated corpses—are at best a very minor feature of voodoo lore and practice. But they were featured in a 1932 feature film, White Zombie, and that, presumably, is what brought them into popular culture, where, as we all know, they’ve flourished. That “zombie” continues to be on the way up while “voodoo” is headed down might thus be taken as perhaps a final detachment of zombies from voodoo. Zombies now have lives of their own, as it were.

I note, in passing, that 1932, the pop culture birth of zombies, was a depression year, as are the current years, those of zombies ascendant. If you are a devotee of academic Marxism you may, if you so wish, insert some speculation about zombies as the cultural avatar of the death of capitalism—recall Quigga\in’s Zombie Economics.

That’s two of the three lines in the graph. The third, the green line, is for “Loa.” Notice that it shows notable action in 1800 while neither of the others do—well, voodoo just a bit—and it peaks at about 1940 and then falls off in the 1970s. The Loas are the spirits of voodoo. Here’s the Wikipedia gloss:

They are also referred to as Mystères and the Invisibles, in which are intermediaries between Bondye (Bon Dieu, or good god)—the Creator, who is distant from the world—and humanity. Unlike saints or angels however, they are not simply prayed to, they are served. They are each distinct beings with their own personal likes and dislikes, distinct sacred rhythms, songs, dances, ritual symbols, and special modes of service. Contrary to popular belief, the loa are not deities in and of themselves; they are intermediaries for a distant Bondye.

Needless to say, the Loa are far more important in voodoo practice and lore than are zombies.

Zombies, I suspect, have more to do with white fears of black Others, than with voodoo as such. Except that now, as the graph seems to indicate, zombies have become detached from voodoo, which may mean that the notion has become detached from white fears of blacks.

But what do we make of that curve for “loa”? I don’t quite know. It might almost be an index of actual interest in and reference to voodoo as it is practiced as opposed to how it has been appropriated into the white imagination. But that’s just a crude guess.


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